Mobula eregoodootenkee

Rancho Santa Margarita, Calif. – This World Wildlife Day, March 3,Project AWARE®, WWF and The Manta Trust are pleased to release Responsible Shark and Ray Tourism: A Guide to Best Practice, the world’s first-ever guidelines for shark and ray tourism operators.

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A record number of migratory sharks and rays were listed for global protection at the CMS COP11, held in Quito, Ecuador in 2014.  But, what comes next? 

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The Pygmy Devil Ray (Mobula eregoodootenkee) is classified as a Near Threatened MobulaMobula are slow-growing, large-bodied migratory, planktivorous animals with small, highly fragmented populations that are sparsely distributed across the tropical and temperate oceans of the world. Their biological and behavioural characteristics (low reproductive rates, late maturity and aggregating behaviour) make these species particularly vulnerable to over-exploitation in fisheries and extremely slow to recover from depletion.

Little is known about the Pygmy Devil Ray, but it is believed that it specializes in catching small schooling fishes, using rapid acceperation to lunge through densely packed schools of fish. It is widely distributed through the coastal continental waters of the tropical Indo-West Pacific.

Mobula rays are caught in commercial and artisanal fisheries throughout their global warm water range in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Directed fisheries primarily utilize harpoons and nets, while significant bycatch occurs in purse seine, gill and trawl net fisheries targeting other species, including on the high seas. A recent surge in demand for mobula ray products (gill plates) in China and reports of increased direct fishing effort in key range states suggests an urgent and escalating threat to these species.  

As large species which feed low in the food chain, Mobula can be viewed as indicator species for the overall health of the ecosystem. Studies have suggested that removing large, filter-feeding organisms from marine environments can result in significant, cascading species composition changes.


Assessment information
CMS InstrumentsCMS, Sharks (2016)
IUCN StatusNear threatened
Date of entry in Appendix I2014
Date of entry in Appendix II2014
Geographic range
Countries Australia, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Yemen
Common names
EnglishPygmy Devil Ray, Longhorned Devil Ray
Scientific name Mobula eregoodootenkee
Author(Bleeker, 1859)
Standard referenceEschmeyer, W.N. (1990). Catalogue of the Genera of Recent Fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California.
SynonymsMobula diabolus (Whitley, 1940)

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